Niueans are citizens of New Zealand, and Queen Elizabeth II is head of state in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand.
Between 90–95% of Niuean people live in New Zealand, A bilingual country, Niue has over 30% of its population speak both Niuean and English, though the percentage of monolingual English-speaking people is only 11%, while 46% are monolingual Niuean speakers. In October 2016, Niue officially declared that all its national debt was paid off, and that there was no longer any national debt in Niue.
A small and highly democratic nation, Niueans enjoy high freedom, and elections are held every 3 years.
There are no political parties in Niue; all assembly members are independents.
Niue is subdivided into 14 villages (municipalities).
In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta, which caused extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level.
Until the beginning of the 18th century, Niue appears to have had no national government or national leader; chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over segments of the population.